Technology & definitions

3G (Third Generation)

3G is the third generation of mobile telecommunications technology. This is based on a set of standards used for mobile devices and mobile telecommunications use services and networks that comply with the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. 3G finds application in wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV. Source:

4G (Fourth Generation)

4G is the fourth generation of mobile telecommunications technology, succeeding 3G. A 4G system must provide capabilities defined by ITU in IMT Advanced. Potential and current applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, 3D television, and cloud computing. Source:

ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)

ADSL is a type of DSL broadband communications technology used for connecting to the internet. ADSL allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines (POTS) compared to traditional modem lines. Source: 


ADSL2+ is an extension to ADSL broadband technology that provides subscribers with significantly faster download speeds when compared to traditional ADSL connections. Source:


Bandwidth is defined as the amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time or range within a band of frequencies or wavelengths. Source:

Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN)

A standard for transmitting voice, video and data at the same time over fibre optic telephone lines. Broadband ISDN can support data rates of 1.5 million bits per second (bps), but it has not been widely implemented. Source:

Coaxial cable

A type of wire that consists of a centre wire surrounded by insulation and then a grounded shield of braided wire. The shield minimizes electrical and radio frequency interference. Coaxial cabling is widely used for computer networks, such as Ethernet. Although more expensive than standard telephone wire, it is much less susceptible to interference and can carry much more data. Source:


To copy data from a main source to another device. The term is often used to describe the process of copying a file from an online service or bulletin board service (BBS) to one’s own computer. Downloading can also refer to copying a file from a network file server to a computer on the network. Source:

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

Refers collectively to all types of digital subscriber lines, the two main categories being ADSL and SDSL. DSL technologies use sophisticated modulation schemes to pack data onto copper wires. They are sometimes referred to as last-mile technologies because they are used only for connections from a telephone switching station to a home or office, not between switching stations. Source:

DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplier)

A mechanism at a phone company’s central location that links many customer DSL connections to a single high-speed ATM line. Source: 


A local-area network (LAN) architecture that uses a bus or star topology and supports data transfer rates of 10 Mbps. Source: 

Ethernet over Copper (EoC)

Ethernet over copper pair provides broadband using copper wires twisted together in pairs entering your building, traditionally used for telephone transmission. Source: 

Fibre Optic

A technology that uses glass (or plastic) threads (fibres) to transmit data. Fibre optics has several advantages over traditional metal communications lines. Source: 

Fibre to the Building (FTTB)

See: Fibre to the Home (FTTH)

Fibre to the Curb (FTTC)

The installation of optical fibre from a telephone switch to within 1,000 feet of a home or enterprise. Typically, coaxial cable is used to establish the connection from curb to building. Source:

Fibre to the Home (FTTH)

The installation of optical fibre from a telephone switch directly into the subscriber’s home. Fibre optic cable is an alternative to coaxial cable. FTTH is also referred to as fibre to the building (FTTB), or fibre to the premises (FTTP) which includes optical fibre that is installed directly into a home or enterprise. Source:

Fibre to the Node (FTTN)

Fibre to the node (FTTN) is one of several options for providing cable telecommunications services to multiple destinations. Fibre to the node helps to provide broadband connection and other data services through a common network box, which is often called a node. Source:

Fixed Wireless

Fixed wireless refers to wireless devices or systems that are situated in fixed locations, such as an office or home, as opposed to devices that are mobile, such as smartphones and tablets. Fixed wireless devices normally derive their electrical power from utility mains, as opposed to portable wireless devices that normally derive their power from batteries. Source: 

Fibre to the Premises (FTTP)

See: Fibre to the Home (FTTH)

Gb (Gigabit)

Gigabit (Gb) is a data measurement unit applied to digital data transfer rates (DTR) and download speeds. One Gb equals one billion (1,000,000,000 or 109) bits. Source:

ISDL (ISDN Digital Subscriber Line)

A method of providing DSL technology over existing ISDN lines. Even though the transfer rates for IDSL are about the same as ISDN (144kbps v. 128kbps), and IDSL circuits typically only carry data (not voice), the major benefits of switching to IDSL from ISDN are always-on connections, thus eliminating call setup delays; flat rate billing, instead of per minute fees; and transmission of data over the data network, rather than the PSTN. Source:

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

An international communications standard for sending voice, video, and data over digital telephone lines or normal telephone wires. ISDN supports data transfer rates of 64 Kbps (64,000 bits per second). Source:

IP Telephony (Internet Protocol Telephony)

An IP telephone system uses packet-switched Voice over IP (VoIP), or internet telephony, to transmit telephone calls over the internet instead of the circuit-switched telephony used by the traditional Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Also known as VoIP phone systems. Source: 

ISP (Internet Service Provider)

Short for Internet Service Provider, it refers to a company that provides Internet services, including personal and business access to the Internet. Source:

LAN (Local Area Network)

A local-area network (LAN) is a computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most often, a LAN is confined to a single room, building or group of buildings, however, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN). Source:

Mb (Megabit)

Megabit (Mb) is a data measurement unit applied to digital computer or media storage. One Mb equals one million (1,000,000 or 106) bits or 1,000 kilobits (Kb). Source:

Mbps (Megabits Per Second)

Megabits Per Second (Mbps) is a measurement unit applied to digital data transfer rates (DTR) related to any type of media or computer. One Mb equals one million (1,000,000 or 106) bits or 1,000 kilobits (Kb). One Mbps is capable of downloading one million bits of data per second. Source:

Mobile Internet Device (MID)

A Mobile Internet Device (MID) is a small multimedia-enabled mobile device that provides wireless Internet access. MIDs facilitate real-time and two-way communication by filling the multimedia gap between mobile phones and tablets. Source:

Naked DSL

A naked DSL (a.k.a. standalone or dry loop DSL) is a digital subscriber line (DSL) without a PSTN (analogue telephony) service — or the associated dial tone. In other words, only a standalone DSL Internet service is provided on the local loop. Naked DSL is the same as standard DSL, except that there is no voice service. Telephone service is not required for DSL to operate correctly. Source:

nbnTM (National Broadband Network)

The nbn will provide high-speed broadband access to all Australian homes and businesses through a mix of three technologies: optic fibre, fixed wireless and next-generation satellite. nbnTM Co is the wholesale provider which will be resold through telecommunication companies. Sunshine Coast nbn providers are listed here. For an Australia wide listing of nbn suppliers, visit


Ping is a network diagnostic tool used primarily to test the connectivity between two nodes or devices. To ping a destination node, an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request packet is sent to that node. If a connection is available, the destination node responds with an echo reply. Ping calculates the round-trip time of the data packet’s route from its source to the destination and back, and determines whether any packets were lost during the trip. Source:

PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network)

Refers to the international telephone system based on copper wires carrying analog voice data. This is in contrast to newer telephone networks base on digital technologies, such as ISDN and FDDI. Telephone service carried by the PSTN is often called plain old telephone service (POTS).


A router is a device that analyses the contents of data packets transmitted within a network or to another network. Routers determine whether the source and destination are on the same network or whether data must be transferred from one network type to another, which requires encapsulating the data packet with routing protocol header information for the new network type. Source:

Satellite Broadband

Satellite broadband is network connectivity provided through low-earth-orbit (LEO) or geostationary satellites, with the latter providing much faster data rates. Satellite broadband enables Internet access via satellite in two steps:

  1. A personal computer broadcasts requests via satellite modem to a satellite dish placed on top of a home or business.
  2. The dish sends and receives signals from the orbiting satellite. If the dish is able to get a clear view of the southern sky, a user can receive satellite Internet access.

Satellite broadband is also known as satellite Internet access. Source:

SHDSL (Single-pair high-speed digital subscriber line)

SHDSL is a form of symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL), a data communications technology for equal transmit and receive (i.e. symmetric) data rate over copper telephone lines, faster than a conventional voiceband modem can.  Source


Data streaming is the process of transferring a stream of data from one place to another, to a sender and recipient or through some network trajectory. Data streaming is applied in multiple ways with various protocols and tools that help provide security, efficient delivery and other data results. 


Uploading refers to the process of copying files from a smaller peripheral device to a large central system. Source:

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)

Voice over Internet Protocol, or VoIP, telephone products connect to VoIP, or Internet telephony, systems, which use packet-switched telephony to transmit calls over the Internet as opposed to the circuit-switched telephony used by the traditional Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).

VPN (Virtual Private Network)

A network that is constructed by using public wires — usually the Internet — to connect to a private network, such as a company’s internal network. 

WAN (Wide Area Network)

A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs).Computers connected to a wide-area network are often connected through public networks, such as the telephone system. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet.

Wireless Broadband Ethernet

Wireless internet enables wireless connectivity via radio waves rather than wires on a person’s home computer, laptop, smartphone or similar mobile device. Source:  

WLAN (Wireless Local-Area Network)

A type of local-area network that uses high-frequency radio waves rather than wires to communicate between nodes. Source:



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